Sunday, February 23, 2020
Reflective diary - Essay Example He does not really overtly manifest his beliefs, expectations, perceptions, assumptions, values, thoughts, deep-seated feelings and impactful experiences in his life. Take that iceberg and multiply it a hundredfold and you have a multi-faceted population who may only be bound a number of commonalities. Culture may be one of them, or gender, or age, but still, deep inside, they are unique individuals. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s say a person from a certain cultural background is plucked out of that environment and brought to a totally different one. Orberg (1960) theorized that his initial reaction would be culture shock because he is not accustomed to what he sees and experiences in that new place. He may be excited to be there and feel that it suits him really well because it addresses his own personal preferences for a living environment. Take someone else from the same culture he belongs to and bring him to the same new environment. He may likewise experience culture shock but not be excited lik e the first individual. On the contrary, he may be terribly upset for leaving his home culture because he was out of his comfort zone and needed to go back to it. Both people from the same culture may have different views and perceptions of the new culture and their reaction to it will depend on what they have Ã¢â¬Å"beneath the tips of their icebergsÃ¢â¬ . ... ), but after some time, he might realize that it is something very different from what he was accustomed to, so he becomes frustrated and confused (morning after stage). This is the time when homesickness sets in, and is described as the dip in the U-curve. Eventually, as he learns to adjust to his new environment, he slowly regains his positive disposition. This pattern is not limited to adjustment to living in a new country. It may also be adjustment to a new job, new school, phase of life, etc. where the individual experiences a different culture. Adjusting to the people in the new culture may be challenging especially if there is a language barrier. If so, the individual will rely on non-verbal communication to understand the natives. He also needs to know the new culture and be aware the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs, value system, food, traditions, etc. David Kolb (1984) explains four stages of learning experiences. These are having concrete experiences, reflective observations of wh at was just experienced, abstract conceptualisation or extracting learning from the experience and finally the active experimentation leading to new experiences thereby completing the full learning cycle. For an individual immersed in a new culture, he needs to establish rapport with others and establish smooth interpersonal relationships. Especially in settings where people from various cultures come to live and work together, each person adopts certain roles to play to contribute to the team. Belbin (1981) has come up with team roles. Team roles improve self-knowledge and understanding among individuals and teams. They also depict a current behavioral pattern at a certain point in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Preferences aren't fixed, since many factors can influence behaviour, whether a new job,
Friday, February 7, 2020
HU300 Unit 7 A - Research Paper Example It is to be understood as having a Ã¢â¬Å"lifeÃ¢â¬ that moves within it (Scruton, 2009, p. 7). Therefore, music is about life and is understood as the universal language. As a universal language of life, music portrays our moods in all aspects of our lives. People listen to music for a lot of reasons: to ease melancholy, to celebrate victory, to complement the feeling of romance and passion, to grieve and to listen to the new single of oneÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬â¢ favorite artist. Therefore, music is a way of life, and it forms part of our journey as humans. Music: Representation of Moods and Stages of Life Childhood Years During my childhood years, there was something about male and female groups that I really liked the most. I grew up listening to Spice Girls, Aqua, Boyz II Men, Westlife, and Blue, but most of all, I was notably addicted to Spice Girls. Perhaps, it was all about their stature and fame that I was hooked with their popular hits like 2 Become 1, Wannabe, Viva Forever, and Stop. These songs enlivened my childhood especially that this group also complemented their music with colorful outfits, those that would really dazzle the audience especially the young ones. Moreover, their songs were groovy and had the element of recall which made them easier to memorize. As a child, I would love to hear songs that make me happy, groove, and smile. These songs influenced my childhood in such a way that they became part of my everyday routine. During weekends, I played their CD all throughout the day that no wonder, the CD had tantrums once in a while. Adolescence Stage When I entered high school, the music industry was even livelier. Rock bands, talent search singers, and veteran hit makers continue to make songs for mass consumption, most especially that the Internet was on its hype, and almost all music released or are presently hitting the waves are very much available online. I still adore U2, The Fray, Red Hot Chili Peppers, and The Calling. Notice the shift from being so obsessed with an all-female group to alternative rock bands. Nevertheless, I started to appreciate the music of The Calling. My adolescent music life was filled with vigor with this band on my A-list. My preference to their music was not in any way a matter of Ã¢â¬Ëgoing with the flowÃ¢â¬â¢ as most teenagers were head-over-heels with rock bands. It was because I recognized this bandÃ¢â¬â¢s passion to write songs that reflect strong emotions, most notably songs that contain sincere messages about being in-love and standing strong against the odds of being in a relationship. I was magically transported to another dimension of the world when I heard the song Ã¢â¬ËStigmatizedÃ¢â¬â¢ by The Calling. When one is in the adolescent stage, all you think of is making the most out of life. Surely, one manifestation of living life as if it is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s end is by being in love. Ã¢â¬ËStigmatizedÃ¢â¬â¢ reflects teenagers drive to make a relationship work, despit e all the circumstances stopping the possible romance to bloom. The melody brought by the acoustic guitar and the intense vocal prowess of the lead singer make the song more of a personal conversation rather than a compilation of words and melody. Certainly, this song has been part of my youthful years. Comforting Music There is this beauty not found in every note and lyric of the song but on the general properties of music (Cook & Everist, 1999). Music comforts us through the whole impact of the song and not in every syllable or
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
BoliviaÃ¢â¬â¢s Indigenous Political Voice Essay The full empowerment of the political voice of the indigenous people of Bolivia is symbolized by the election of Evo Morales, the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s first Indigenous President. How did an Aymaran Indian coca farmer, the most marginalized, discriminated, and impoverished people in Latin America; finally won control of the political power to change the lives of all the peoples of Bolivia? How did the Indigenous people overpower the 500 year old political, economic and social institutions that exploited and degraded their country? The significance of this victory has implications not only for the Indigenous people and citizens of Bolivia but also to the other indigenous people around the world, other Latin American and developing countries, black African Americans and even to the U. S. and EU Ã¢â¬ËmajorityÃ¢â¬â¢ citizens whose tax dollars pay for the implementation of imperialist policies but are ignorant or apathetic on how the Ã¢â¬Ëcorporatocracy of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢ impoverish and kill other citizens around the world (Perkins, 2005). Petras (2004) has described the mass movement in Bolivia as one of the most important mass anti-imperialist movement in modern history, second only to Cuba. This is a big departure from the anti-globalization movements in North America by human rights activists, environmentalists and NGOs which only increases educational awareness but have no political or economic impact at all to the Imperialists. Due to the transformational impact and significance of the Political Voice of the Indigenous people, the paper aims to discuss the proactive actions of Indigenous people and the confluence of events which shifted the real power from the Ã¢â¬ËwhiteÃ¢â¬â¢ minority in Bolivia to the Ã¢â¬ËIndigenousÃ¢â¬â¢ majority. Furthermore, it is significant to note that PetrasÃ¢â¬â¢ (2004) insight to the sustainability of the mass movement in Bolivia can also be related to the sustainability of BoliviaÃ¢â¬â¢s New Indigenous government. Petras stated that the anti-imperialist movement in Bolivia is sustainable because inherent class struggles of peasants and urban workers are Ã¢â¬Ëembedded in the movementÃ¢â¬â¢. The mass-based leadership and its direct connection to the struggles of the people prevent the betrayal of the movement from Ã¢â¬Ëbourgeoise nationalistsÃ¢â¬â¢ who are vulnerable to the seduction of the elite and foreign imperialist governments. Therefore, for the Bolivian Indigenous government to survive, it must stay anti-imperialist and create institutions, political instruments and polices that would make it secure against the attacks and at the same time strengthen its linkage to the struggles and daily lives of its people (Petras, 2004). This truth is affirmed by the current Indigenous president in his inaugural speech in 2006, Ã¢â¬Å"You have to control me. You have to control me. I may make a mistake but I will not betray you. Ã¢â¬ Most importantly, the paper highlights how the Indigenous knowledge and cultural values have provided Bolivia, an alternative framework for economic development, industrialization and management of natural resources. In addition, the solutions to promote solidarity and nationalism to BoliviaÃ¢â¬â¢s multi-ethnic and geographically divided population (which is also being attacked by the right-wing elite backed by the U. S. government) is found in the Indigenous Catholic Church. In the past, the church served as the catalyst for BoliviaÃ¢â¬â¢s mass movement. Today, the Indigenous Church continues to play a vital role in unifying Bolivian citizens. Lord Acton has noted Ã¢â¬Å"Christianitys capacity to transcend national differences, at least among believers. Its universalism, he noted, enabled nations Ã¢â¬Å"to live together under the same authority, without necessarily losing their cherished habits, their customs, or their laws. Ã¢â¬ (Jusdanis, 2001, p. 198) Another important source for the forging of Ã¢â¬ËBolivian NationalismÃ¢â¬â¢ is the strong social democratic state led by Evo Morales which will assert its legitimacy and sovereignty, through equitable distribution of wealth and education and health reforms. As Lord Acton explained, Ã¢â¬Å"A nation is a moral and political being; not the creation of geographical or physiological unity but developed in the course of history by the action of the State. It is derived from the State, not supreme over itÃ¢â¬ . That the state should precede nationality was in his opinion essential for the maintenance of liberty and prosperityÃ¢â¬âthe opposite of Herders belief that the state should grow out of the nation. (Jusdanis, 2001, p. 198) Furthermore, solidarity built through common experience of colonialism and imperialism has motivated Bolivia, South America, and Third World countries to create political instruments and institutions such as ALBA, Mercosur, Telesur, G22 to protect their respective countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ sovereignty which is Ã¢â¬Ënecessary for the attainment of an equitable and balanced economic growthÃ¢â¬â¢(Morales, 1992). I. Background on Bolivia Bolivia is known for its extraordinary geography, the Ã¢â¬ËTibet of South AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢; extreme poverty despite rich natural resources, Ã¢â¬ËBeggar sitting on a throne of richesÃ¢â¬â¢; extreme racism and exploitation of the majority by few wealthy elites and by multinational corporations backed by an imperialist government, Ã¢â¬ËEconomic slavery and Apartheid lives in Bolivia! Ã¢â¬â¢. However, these facts alone do not convey what is most significant about Bolivia, the extraordinary spirit of its Indigenous people. They never gave up and mounted 150 to 200 coups against oppression in its 160 years of independent history (Morales, 1992, p. 200). Furthermore, the Bolivian mass movement has been described by Petras (2004) as the most important anti-imperialist movement and second only to that of Cuba. The collective spirit or culture of the Indigenous people has proven its strength to endure 500 years of invasion and Ã¢â¬Ëdictatorship of individualismÃ¢â¬â¢ (Blanco, 2007). Ã¢â¬Å"Despite centuries of neglect, destruction of all cultural context or support, ethnic discrimination, starvation, cultural domination, religious conversion, racial bigotry, lack of education and health care, economic exploitation and destruction of their environment, the Andean Indian culture survives, smoldering in hearts and minds, towns and villages, streets and plazasÃ¢â¬ ( Dowbrigade. com, 2005). After more than 500 years, Highland and Amazon indigenous people still compose about two-thirds of Bolivias population. This is the highest proportion of Indians in the hemisphere. If this were true in the United States, it would be equivalent to Ã¢â¬Ë160 million Apaches, Hopis and IroquoisÃ¢â¬â¢ still living and embracing their culture despite being in a Ã¢â¬ËwhiteÃ¢â¬â¢ American society (Powers, 2005). Since the 16th century Spanish conquest, BoliviaÃ¢â¬â¢s Indigenous people and natural resources have been exploited first by colonizers and then by the elite minority in collusion with multinational corporations backed by the US Imperialist government. Silver was looted by the Spaniards, then the latterÃ¢â¬â¢s descendants, the wealthy urban elites or Ã¢â¬ËwhitesÃ¢â¬â¢ looted the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s tin and rubber. Bolivia is one of the most corrupt societies in the world according to a World Bank study. Ã¢â¬Å"Although Bolivia was long a major source of the worlds tin, the wealth from this irreplaceable resource went into the hands of a few absentee oligarchic families who lived mostly in Paris and New YorkÃ¢â¬ (Morales, 1992, p. xi). Moreover, the Spanish descendants or Ã¢â¬ËwhitesÃ¢â¬â¢ which are only 5-15% of the population dominated and controlled political and economic life for centuries and was only halted by the election of Evo Morales in December 2005. The Ã¢â¬ËwhiteÃ¢â¬â¢ elites made a living as professionals, wealthy merchants, or high-ranking government officials. The racial term Ã¢â¬ËwhiteÃ¢â¬â¢ is chiefly associated with socioeconomic status in Bolivia (Morales, 1992, p. 14). On the other hand Indians comprise 60% of the population and they make a living as low-income subsistence farmers, miners, small traders or artisans (Country Profile: Bolivia, BBC News. com). The rest or 30% of the population are Mestizos who closely identify with the Ã¢â¬ËwhitesÃ¢â¬â¢. The wealthy mestizos are also encouraged to marry daughters of impoverished Ã¢â¬ËwhiteÃ¢â¬â¢ families so they can have educated Ã¢â¬ËwhiteÃ¢â¬â¢ children and improve their status (Hudson and Hanratty, 1989. Powers (2005) aptly declares that, Ã¢â¬ËBolivian apartheidÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ëpigmentocracy of powerÃ¢â¬â¢ continues to exist. In 1985, Father Gregorio Iriarte, published the following statistics: Bolivia has the highest infant mortality rate in all of Latin America (213 per 1,000) and the lowest life expectancy (47 years); half the nation is undernourished, with 70 percent of the children dying before the age of 15 of treatable diseases of poverty; more than 50 percent of the population is illiterate; and the country has one of the worst distributions of wealth in the Americas (the wealthiest 5 percent control 39 percent of the national income and the poorest 20 percent, only 2 percent)(cited in Morales, 1992, p. 204). In 2005, after twenty years of U. S. Aid and humanitarian programs, IMF and World Bank structural and neo-liberal economic policies, the Bolivia majority population still live on less than $2 a day (Powers, 2005). II. What are the factors that gave rise to the Ã¢â¬ËEmpowerment of the Political Voice of the Indigenous People of Bolivia? Support of the Catholic Church for the Indigenous People, Revitalization of the Indian Culture Waltraud Q. Morales in Ã¢â¬ËBolivia: Land of StruggleÃ¢â¬â¢ (1992) attributed BoliviaÃ¢â¬â¢s underdevelopment to the structure of powerlessness and lack of economic and political independence. She strongly advocated that the renewal of the nation and formation of a socio-economic model that would lift Bolivia from poverty lies in the Indian Culture (p. 202-204). Neither the defeated and decadent heritage of Spanish colonialism nor the declining, materialist imprint of North American imperialism can serve as the basis of moral renewal. The heritage that survives undefeated, whole, and vibrant is the Indian one. Unlike the Western system of wealth accumulation to the detriment of others, economic equality is integral to the indigenous vision of justice [italics mine]. The Aymara believe in Kuskachana or Pampachana, meaning the leveling or reestablishment of a balance. In the Aymara world view, uncontrolled growth as development is suicide, not progress; and development without respect for the earth negates the sense of themselves, their personal and cultural identity. The message from ancient voices is one not of greed or private property but of community and peoplehoodÃ¢â¬ [italics mine] (Morales, 1992, p. 204). The revitalization of the ethnic Indian culture was initiated by the Catholic Church to stimulate indigenous political activism (Cleary, 2004). In 1968, Theology of Liberation was introduced in the Latin American Bishop Medellin Conference. The Church recognized that each culture has its own integrity and must be respected and given the freedom to develop their full potential. In addition, the Church advocated against the use of traditional church practices that foster the continuation of the domination of the Ã¢â¬ËwhitesÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËmestizosÃ¢â¬â¢ over the Indian peasants through paternalistic and accommodative practices (e. g. sponsoring of the fiestas and indebtedness of the peasants to the patron). The church recognized that the revitalization of the Indian Culture is central to transforming Bolivian politics and society. They trained native leaders as catechists and promoted the use of native language, Ã¢â¬Ërecovery of cultural memoryÃ¢â¬â¢ and integration of the Indian cosmological view with Christian doctrines in the Bible which supported political self-determination (Cleary, 2004). Educational Centers were built and this helped raise the political consciousness of the Indigenous people; encouraged them to turn outward and Ã¢â¬Ëoccupy their political spaceÃ¢â¬â¢, rather than show their resistance by isolating themselves in their communities. The Indian catechists also built their sense of citizenship; and recognition of their right and capacity to interact with the state instead of feeling inferior and staying outside of the political arena. They were also motivated to self-organize for their emancipation. This resulted in the flourishing of Grassroots organizations in Bolivia (Cleary, 2004). In the 1960s, Xavier Albo, formed CIPCA (Centro de Investigacion y Promocion del Campesinado) or Center for Investigation and Promotion of Peasants. He later helped young Aymara people establish the Tupac Katarista Center which helped develop young Aymaran leaders. Within a short span of time, these Aymarans occupied positions in several government peasant unions and also organized their own unions. Later on, these leaders were able to unite urban, mine, and rural workers to fight against unequal treatment and demand credit, education, and health services from the government (Cleary, 2004, p. 54). The Katarist movement and experience of other lowland grassroots organizations also influenced the Indigenous Center of Eastern Bolivia (CIDOB). CIDOB gained national prominence in 1990, when they organized the march of Indigenous people demanding Ã¢â¬Å"territory and dignityÃ¢â¬ over hundreds of kilometers across the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s main highways to La Paz (Cleary, 2004, p. 54). Most importantly, the centers and the native church leaders through liberation theology aimed to develop Ã¢â¬Ëcommunity solidarityÃ¢â¬â¢ among the Indians divided by plural ethnicities, cultures, geography and economic status (Cleary, 2004). Geo-political Reality in Bolivia Geography has been the more potent force, splitting the country in half, into a land divided. Communications and transportation systems have overcome neither the barrier of the high Andes Mountains cutting through the heart of the country nor the northeastern pull of the vast lowland rivers away from the highland and toward the undeveloped Amazon and Brazil. Nature itself seems in league with regionalist forces as this intricate system of waterways leads from nowhere to nowhere. Extreme topographical diversity encourages intense racial and cultural division between the Andean highlands and the eastern, tropical lowlands. Highlanders and lowlanders are aliens in each others world (Morales, 1992, p. 4). As further explained by Morales (1992), the Bolivian highlander identifies more with the other highlanders from Peru and Chile while the Bolivian lowlander identifies more with their fellow lowlander from Brazil or Argentina (p. 4). However, this affinity of Bolivians with people from neighboring countries can also be positive in the establishment of regional integration for the South American region to counter Imperialism. Ã¢â¬ËEven within related Indian communities, wide differences in custom and dress persist. Within the Quechua nation, for instance, one can distinguish a variety of local groups: the Tarabucos, the Chayantas, the Laimes, the Ucumaris, the Calchas, the Chaquies, the Yuras Lipes, and the Tirinas. A highlander can readily identify the region of the country and the community of an Indian by differences in dress, custom, and musicÃ¢â¬â¢ (Morales, 1992). Moreover, Bolivia is subdivided into nine regional departments or provinces administratively. These departments are La Paz, Oruro, Potosi, Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, Tarija, Santa Cruz, Beni, and Pando. Competition for political power and economic influence have historically characterized the relationships between these departments (Morales, 1992, p. 5. ). Furthermore, Chavez (2007) added that the division between the western highlands, and eastern lowlands is also racial, and socio-economic. The Western highlands is home to the impoverished indigenous majority while the Eastern provinces is home to wealthier people of mainly Spanish descent. The Eastern provinces also hold most of the countrys natural gas production and industry. Indian Culture and Values Central to the transformation of Bolivian Society Hugo Blanco, leader of the peasant uprising in the Cuzco region of Peru in the early 1960s explains how the Indigenous Ã¢â¬Å"cosmic vision is different from the Western outlook that views the creator as a superior immaterial spirit who created man in his image and likeness and created nature to serve him. For the indigenous cosmic vision, humanity is a daughter of and part of Mother Earth. We must live in her bosom in harmony with her Ã¢â¬Å"(Blanco, 2007). Blanco is proud of the Andean-Amazon culture and states that, Ã¢â¬Å"This culture is marked by deep knowledge of nature and is highly agricultural. Ours is one of the seven zones of the world to have originated agricultureÃ¢â¬ ¦ For more than 10,000 years our culture domesticated 182 plant species, including around 3,500 potato varieties. Our people know 4,500 medicinal plants. Tawantinsuyos planned agriculture based on a system of watersheds and micro watersheds or basins. They built long aqueducts, taking care to avoid land erosion. Terracing was practiced on the slopes and Ã¢â¬Å"waru-waruÃ¢â¬ in the altiplano (highlands)]. Special technologies were used from zone to zone. Across the entire Tawantinsuyo territory they created storage buildings (qolqa) to supply food to the population whenever some climatic shift undermined agriculture Ã¢â¬ ¦ItÃ¢â¬â¢s true that the new forms of collectivism gave rise to privileged castes and wars of conquest. But in no part of the continent was production based on slave labor or the feudal system. Although there were privileged castes, hunger and misery did not exist. Orphans, persons with disabilities, and the elderly were cared for by the communityÃ¢â¬ (Blanco, 2007). Cochabamba Water War 2000 Alturalde (2006) imparted that the indigenous people view Ã¢â¬Ëwater as life and gift from Mother EarthÃ¢â¬â¢. When the World Bank and IMF in Bolivia imposed the privatization of water on the Bolivian government, Aguas del Tunari (ADT), the subsidiary the US-based Bechtel was awarded the contract which included sources of water that belonged to the Indigenous people since ancient times. When ADT announced an increase in water rates, which the Indigenous people could not afford, the latter in massive numbers went to Cochabamba to protest. Anger was already simmering due to the structural policies of the IMF which deprived them of much needed government services. The additional privatization of water which made it unaffordable to the poor indigenous people and the directive not even to save rainwater provoked violent reactions. Hundreds of people were injured in the Ã¢â¬Ëwater warÃ¢â¬â¢. This disaster also made the people aware of the lack of recognition of the legal rights of the Indigenous people and their lack of strong political representation in Congress to defend their interests (Alurralde, 2006). Indigenous Alternative to Privatization In 2002, Bolivias Consejo Interinstitucional del Agua (interinstitutional water council) asked organizations for research on how to resolve the water conflict. The Comision para la Gestion Integral del Agua en Bolivia (commission for integrated water management in Bolivia) proposed a highly inclusive participatory process which would involve the use of the best possible science in determining the solution that would be in the best interest of the nation. (Alurralde , 2006). Numerous workshops for Indigenous communities in different parts of the country were held. To ensure that the new law would reflect the agreement on these meetings, the Ministry of Sustainable Development and Planning, and Parliaments Environment Commission were also included. The workshop organizers used Mike Basin, a computer simulation program to analyze the impact of the proposals. They used the data proposed by the government which is Ã¢â¬Ëassigning individual rights based on a fixed dischargeÃ¢â¬â¢. The also used the data of the Ã¢â¬Ëdaily water allocation by Indigenous communities under the traditional communal system. The results of the computer model showed that the traditional system allocated water much more efficiently and equitably, although it was not completely free of waste. The findings provided the foundation for key sections of Bolivias new irrigation law which was passed by Parliament in 2004 (Alurralde, 2006). Ã¢â¬ËMany Indigenous peoples have a long history of using water wisely. By incorporating their views into the policy-making process, existing policies are strengthenedÃ¢â¬â¢ (Alurralde, 2006). Nationalization of Natural Gas The Ã¢â¬ËGas WarÃ¢â¬â¢ erupted from September to October 2003. These popular protests for the equitable distribution of the benefits of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s vast natural gas compelled the resignation of two presidents and the election of Evo Morales. The protests originated from the privatization of President Sanchez de Lozada of the gas and oil companies in 1996 under the orders of the IMF and World Bank. The proposal to sell liquid natural gas to the international markets through Chile, to whom their coastline was lost in the 18th century, further stoked the anger of the population. These people were already protesting the lack of transparency in the contracts and their impoverished condition compared to the visible wealth of the foreign companies and elites who controlled their countryÃ¢â¬â¢s natural resources. In the National referendum on the gas issue on 2004, majority voted for greater state control and increased revenue for the state. In 2006, by Supreme Decree 28701, President Morales nationalized the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s gas and oil industry (Hodges, 2007). This form of nationalization involved higher tax payments by petroleum companies and the renegotiation of contracts rather than expropriation. Due to these changes, income increased nine times from 2002 to 2007. In 2003 petrol companies paid an estimated $173 million US dollars in tax to the Bolivian government compared to 2007 payment of $1. 57 billion dollars (Hodges, 2007). These protests against specific issues of water, and gas and the visibility of the IMF and World Bank in imposing privatization and structural adjustment policies increased the growing awareness of the population of the direct linkage of their class struggles (urban workers and peasants) to macro-economic imperialist policies of the U. S. and the Ã¢â¬ËwhiteÃ¢â¬â¢ local elites (Petras, 2004). These united the multi-ethnic and diverse urban workers, miners, and rural peasants to a common struggle to oust the Ã¢â¬Ëpuppet regimesÃ¢â¬â¢ of imperialist governments and install an indigenous President. Opening of Opportunities to Participate in the Political Process Aside from the Catholic ChurchÃ¢â¬â¢s role in encouraging political activism, other events and people contributed to the civic education of the Indians which built their political capacity to be able to install their own Indigenous President in Bolivia. The 1952 Bolivian National Revolution led by the MNR party, which was headed by the nationalist elite depended on the strength of the indigenous people to storm the Presidential palace. The Indigenous people began to recognize the strength of the alliance between urban workers and peasants (Cleary, 2003). Victor Paz Estonssoro, returned from exile as President and introduced reforms including universal suffrage, nationalization of tin mines and land distribution, and educational reforms, and improvement of status of indigenous peoples (Country Profiles, Bolivia, BBC News). These opened up opportunities to the indigenous people to participate in the national life (Cleary, 2004, p. 53). However, these reforms were interrupted by the intervention of the U. S. and the reversal of the nationalization program. In exchange for foreign aid, policies were instituted to promote foreign participation over the extraction of the natural resources (Lernoux, 1980). Under the Vice-Presidency of Victor Cardenas, an Aymaran Indian; laws were also passed to increase the political participation of the indigenous people in national life. In 1994, a Constitutional Amendment was passed to define Bolivia as a multi-ethnic and multi-cultural The law of Popular Participation also recognized the indigenous form of governments of Ã¢â¬ËaylluÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢imburvichaÃ¢â¬â¢. Public funds were channeled for the use of these government units. Furthermore, the 1995 Law of Decentralization, created stronger municipalities and generated synergy among the grassroots organizations of the indigenous people (Cleary, 2004, p. 55). The indigenous people proactively seized and enthusiastically embraced the opportunities for self-determination. They competed against entrenched politicians who even trucked voters during elections. After decentralization, 464 indigenous leaders were elected to local councils. More than 25% of those elected served as mayors and 9 out of 130 deputies were elected to Congress (Cleary, 2004, p. 57). Cleary (2004) attributed to the above elected Indigenous leaders the Ã¢â¬Ëwidespread multicultural and bilingual educational system, establishment of new government agencies to serve the indigenous sector, acceptance of indigenous culture as part of the national patrimony, and the coming from shadows to prominence [of Indigenous peoples] in national politicsÃ¢â¬â¢ (p. 57). National Unity against US Imperialism and Intervention. Waltraud Morales (1992) claims that foreign intervention undermines a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s development because the Ã¢â¬Ëfragmentation of nationhood due to foreign control and intervention leads to extensive social, cultural, and moral disintegration (p. 202-204). Since culture and values plays an important role in the development of Nationalism in Bolivia, it is imperative that the state be anti-imperialist. This fragmentation takes place at the administrative levels, in the press, and in cultural activities; it is visible at the highest levels of population where little groups dispute the privilege of being friends of the foreigner; it descends to the people when the desperation of poverty causes one to consent to achieving an advantage by the sacrifice of dignity. Ã¢â¬ ¦Extreme poverty facilitates colonization; men in Bolivia have a lower price. There is a certain level at which poverty destroys dignity; the North Americans have discovered this level and work on it: in their eyes and for their pocketbook, a Bolivian costs less than an Argentine or a Chilean. (Morales, 1992, p. 202).
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
The social impact of privatization has been an appendage rather than being built into the design of public sector reform programs and particular measures from start to finish. The objectives and the process of privatization has to be rethought because democracy requires the fullest participation of all people in American society, not just those deemed to live in the Ã¢â¬Å"public sectorÃ¢â¬ . What is happening is not only increasing fear of the poor, but also the privatization of public space, which is given an added push by government cut-backs. Public streets are moved indoors into malls and become private preserves. Parks and streets in gated communities are barred to anyone who does not live there. User fees are charged for the use of other parks and public facilities so that, in practice, they become the property of those who can afford the fees. Privatization of the home sector begins with high fences, heavy gates and barred windows, then proceeds to the hiring of private police to patrol the neighborhood. When that still does not produce the attitude of security, the next step is gated communities: whole subdivisions, entire condominium developments, or apartment complexes protected from the outside world by armed guards or electronic security. Ironically, the gates only provide an illusion of security, as the authors of Ã¢â¬Å"Fortress AmericaÃ¢â¬ demonstrate both through the testimony of interviewees and by demonstrating the penetrability of gates by sneaking through them. Moreover, while residents idealize the gates as a means of creating community, they find that gates can actually promote divisiveness, as residents argue about gate policy and homeowner's association policies. More ominously, Blakely and Snyder argue that gates lead to increasing polarization, us-vs-them attitude of citizens, leaving cities deprived. Among the deprived and polarized are children. They are usually denied a variety of culture as many gated communitites tend not to be richly diverse in class or ethnic standing. This deficiency of being raised surrounded by diversity can play a key role in the increase of feelings of apathy toward those of different ethnic or social background; and in extreme cases, can lead to school violence. Young people who grow up together in the streets and in the poorer neighborhoods are more likely than others to develop attitudes based on respect, and on the pleasure of being together. Gated communitites have a tendency to become inward-looking, withdrawing into itself, combined with a rude, exclusive and stigmatizing attitude with regard to particular groups or individuals who are perceived as threats; or increased social control by one population group over another.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Psychological tests are common tools used by schools, hospitals, companies, and other institutions in order to assess the personality of a particular person. Such tests apprise individuals of their personalities, including their behaviors and what they are capable of doing. The history of personality assessment is very long. It might be possible that assessing personality had been of existence since the time a man tried to assess the personality of a stranger for the first time. However, formally assessing personality first became popular in the beginning and the end of World War II. The first tests were paper-and-pencil group tests which consisted of multiple choice and true-or-false questions administered to a large group (Kaplan, et al, 2005). What is a Test? According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, a test is a critical evaluation or observation. It is also a procedure wherein a statement is being submitted and subjected for acceptance or rejection. Basically, it is a procedure. As related to psychology, it is used to measure skill, intelligence, capacities, or aptitudes of an individual or a group (Test, n. d. ). Categories of Psychological Testing See more: how to write an academic introduction Basically, there are two categories of psychological tests. According to a book entitled, Ã¢â¬Å"Psychological Testing: A practical IntroductionÃ¢â¬ , the two categories are Normal Personality Traits, and Clinical Instruments (Hogan, 2007). The similarities between these two categories involve the nature of the test items and the response formats. Both tests use simple statements as test items, as well as response items. Basically, these items can easily be answered by a simple response such as yes or no. The second similarity is that these categories are subcategorized into comprehensive instruments and specific domain instruments. The aim of the comprehensive clinical instruments is to survey all potential areas of difficulty. In order to do so, these tests produce numerous scores. The specific domain instruments however, focus in only one particular area such as depression, anxiety, or eating disorders. These tests produce only one type of score or a few number of closely related scores. Both normal personality traits and clinical instruments also involve similar strategies for development such as criterion-keying and both have the same stand on faking and responses. Aside from similarities, the two categories of psychological tests also have a number of differences. Firstly, normal personality traits focus on the normal range of personality while clinical instruments focus on the psychopathological aspects or some psychological difficulty. Most of the time, clinical instruments are administered individually, while normal personality traits are administered in a group setting. Clinical instruments are commonly used for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up evaluation. Normal personality traits such as the NEO PI-R do not have that kind of characteristic (Hogan, 2007). Reliability and Validity Reliability of a psychological test means that the results should be consistent. If a person, for example, takes a test, the result of that specific test should be consistent for a considerable period of time. If in any way the result of a test is not the same with an already proven reliable test for a particular person, then that test is not reliable. Thus, reliability is proven with the use of a coefficient correlation between the test scores of the first testing and the second testing. The correlation coefficient (r) is a numerical summary of the relationship indicated in a bivariate distribution. This is computed by defining first the formula for r and computing its raw score (Hogan, 2007). The coefficient for a perfect reliability is +1. 0 while a coefficient of 0. 0 means no reliability. Reliability can also be determined by comparing two psychological measures (McCurley, et al. , 2005). The difference of reliability from validity is that validity is determined whether a particular test is appropriate for the condition to be measured. It is important that an intelligence test should measure and intelligence and a personality test measure personality. The American Psychological Association issued a book entitled, Ã¢â¬Å"Educational and Psychological Tests and ManualsÃ¢â¬ in order to help practitioners in the field of testing determine the validity of a certain test (McCurley, et al. , 2005). It should be noted that it would be inappropriate to refer to the validity of a test in itself. Rather, what should be referred to be the interpretation of the scores, whether it fits the particular purpose. A test may be suitable for a particular condition, but not to another. The question should be asked is if the interpretation of scores of a test fully addressed the level of the condition. Also, validity is not a matter of degree, as according to Hogan. It is necessary that what should be known is the extent of the validity for a particular condition, since some tests may have no validity at all (Hogan, 2007). Reliability and validity have their own significance in psychological testing. Reliability makes sure that tests are consistent and can be used universally to a large number of population. It also makes comparing test results easier since these are standardized and their relationships are already proven appropriate. A test may have reliability without having validity. However, both are essential in determining accurately every individualÃ¢â¬â¢s psychological condition. Validity requires that the test is truly measures the entity it intends to measure. It is difficult to determine validity (McCurley, et al. , 2005). However, it is important that each test accurately measures what it intends to measure. Validity and reliability are interdependent in establishhing a trully effective psychological test.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Everybody wants to start a new chapter at some point of their life. Many people believe that they get this opportunity when they get to college. But what if something so horrible and tragic happened to you in the beginning of this chapter? Would you still be able to achieve your goals and dreams? Face this problem head on no matter what? Or would you close yourself off by ignoring everything and everybody by throwing your life away? Sexual Assault is a very serious crime that happens all over the world. However, it is most common on college campuses. The question that we ask ourselves is: What are the college administrative doing to stop it? To protect their own students and ensure everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s safety? Sexual Assault is the legal term for rape. Recent studies and statistics show that, today, rape is said to be one of the most violent crimes on American campuses (Samson 1). So what exactly is sexual assault? And how is it related to Consent? Boston College, a catholic research college locate in the Chestnut Hill Village in Massachusetts, defined sexual assault as Ã¢â¬Å"any sexual penetration or sexual contact with another individual without consentÃ¢â¬ (Boston College 2). The policy also included a definition of consent that said Ã¢â¬Å"Consent is the clear and voluntary agreement to engage in particular sexual activity, communicated through mutually understandable words or actionsÃ¢â¬ (Boston College 2). The policy clearly states that without consent any act of sexual intercourse isShow MoreRelatedViolence Against Women Within The Family1252 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesViolence against women within the family is an ongoing issue. Marital rape is a very serious form of intimate vio lence. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the definition for marital rape is defined as, Ã¢â¬Å"sexual intercourse forced on a women by her husband, knowingly against her will.Ã¢â¬ (Oxford University Press). 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Friday, December 27, 2019
The underdogs is the most important novel written by Mariano Azuela which is deeply linked to the historical context of how the Mexican Revolution was established, especially in the northern states of Mexico. The Mexican Revolution it was intended to ensure a fairer way of life of the agricultural classes. However, it was harsh, brutal, and bloody complex conflict for the whole country, in which federalism and rebels have been fighting tirelessly for a cause they both believed to be flawless. Azuela follows the performance of a band of revolutionaries who radically transformed politics and Mexican society. Represents the uprising and difficulty of the revolution throughout his novel. Furthermore, describes the rise and fall of Demetrio Macias and his band of rebels who participated and uncovered the hard details effects at the height of the armed phase of the Mexican revolution in the early twentieth century. Demetrio Macias as the main character is a peaceful Indian which is considered a symbol of the Mexican peasants. He represents the rural masses, poverty and ignorance of the lower classes in the economic and social sense, for that reason they are called Ã¢â¬Å"the underdogÃ¢â¬ . Moreover, they fights towards democracy and equality of the few elite land owner, for which they had been unfairly suffered injustice and have been excluded from the gains benefits of Porfirio Diaz (president of Mexico at the time). Ã¢â¬Å"Demetrio in fact explaining to Cervantes that he become a