Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Social Entrepreneurship and Successful Entrepreneur

For a business to succeed in the society, there are certain qualities that a businessperson should display. An entrepreneur is a person who starts and manages a business and posses unique features. When the entrepreneur meets the customers, he/she should be fair in judgement, intelligent in analysing their problems, honest and having a positive attitude towards them.Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on Social Entrepreneurship and Successful Entrepreneur specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More An entrepreneur’s main objective is to excel. In order to achieve this he/she engages in a healthy competition with set standards to reach the best performance. This strengthens him/her in repairing misfortunes that may hinder success thereby becoming a winner. Secondly, an entrepreneur works hard to build new businesses. He extends his working hours with fewer hours of sleep in order to complete his work. In the process of work, he solves problems that arise in order to achieving the set goals (Roger Osberg, 2007). Moreover, a successful entrepreneur takes the risk in his business and learns from the failures that occurred initially. He challenges the risks and attains reasonable feedback, which influences decisions and abilities within the business. A successful entrepreneur innovate new ideas and creative thinking, which helps him to analyse and deal with problems in the business. He improves production methods, introduces good, and finds markets with new customers. A social enterprise is a non-profit business that applies commercial plan to maximise innovations as well as developing the environment. However, one can structure it to a profit making enterprise. It aims at solving societal problems such as poverty, malnutrition, inequalities, marginalization, and unemployment (Social Enterprise Revisited, 2010). Since some social enterprises are non-profit making in nature, in case of profit, they u se it for expanding their services in the community in which they operate. A social enterprise like Grameen Danone pays emphasis on societal well-being. It tries to uplift all persons in the society irrespective of their social classes, disabilities and other challenges. Grameen Danone plans to have every person drive the economy. However, traditional enterprises target expansion of their activities using the profit that they receive from the sales of their products.Advertising Looking for assessment on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In essence, traditional enterprises focus on profit maximization in order to prove the sustainability of their business. They are not ethics driven as compared to social enterprises. An example of this enterprise operation involves a case where a hospital surgeon can send a patient who has been stabbed in the heart away because he/she lacks funds to cater for the treatment. N otably, traditional enterprises commercialize their services; therefore, try to make profit at all times (Social Enterprise Revisited, 2010). On the other hand, social enterprises do not necessarily have to make profits in their operations. In case they make profit, it is channelled to help the society. The continuity of a traditional enterprise relies on profit making that is in a scenario of continuous loss, the enterprise closes down. However, such situations cannot warrant the closure of a social enterprise. Therefore, profit making is more important in a traditional enterprise than a social enterprise. Unjust equilibrium is a situation that can arise when one part of a society lacks political or financial power to attain any meaningful benefits on its own (Roger Osberg, 2007). For instance, it is evident in cases where the sellers do not know the buyers or the buyers do not know the existence of the products in the market. Such scenarios cause suffering, exclusion, and margina lization of a given group of people in the society. The inability of demand and supply of a product to interact effectively in the market results to unjust equilibrium. This equilibrium also results from the rising inequality in the society. Organizations ought to be innovative in order to solve the pressing societal challenges; this will enable the poor to access these essential services thereby stabilizing the equilibrium. According to Roger Osberg (2007), one needs to be courageous and committed to identifying the unfortunate stable equilibrium in social service provision. For example, in identifying the AIDS orphaned widows worldwide, the person sets up the program and addresses it in adults’ schools. This ensures that these widows are educated and cared for hence empowered to meet their own needs. The empowerment process will enable these widows be relieved from poverty. To access it easily, one has to design the program in a way that compels the legions of imitators an d replicators.Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on Social Entrepreneurship and Successful Entrepreneur specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, in social entrepreneurship, one can reformulate an adult school for AIDS widows (Roger Osberg, 2007). This will lead to a stable equilibrium since if one school is closed, there will be a healthy system where AIDS widows will continuously access education. Social entrepreneurship encourages continuity of service provision. Further, the other social venture is social activism where there is one motivator of the activity. In addition, the aspects of the actors’ features are the same, but the natures of the action oriented are different (Roger Osberg, 2007). Social activist is created indirectly by influencing others like NGO’s, consumers and workers. They yield substantial advancement in the already existing systems resulting to a new equilibrium and infl uence but not direct action. References Roger, M. L., Osberg, S. (2007). Social Entrepreneurship: The Case for Definition. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 3, 29-39. Social Enterprise Revisited. (2010, August 2). Social Wheel. Retrieved from http://www.socialwheel.co.za/home/static/en_US/id/5.html This assessment on Social Entrepreneurship and Successful Entrepreneur was written and submitted by user Libby Blake to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Global Warming Is Not Caused by Humans Essay Example

Global Warming Is Not Caused by Humans Paper There are many scientists who say that humans are the cause of global warming. With all the talk about green house gases going up and the amount of emissions that humans are putting into the atmosphere, not very many people talk about the other side of the story. By proving that humans are not the Cause of Global warming people will better understand what really is causing global warming. There are three very important points that one needs to look at when discussing the issue of global warming. One is ICC concentrations are not very high at all. The second is that solar cycles cause eating on not only earth but other planets. The last would be that global warming Of the earth is a natural cycle that the earth goes through and has been going through for many years. It is very easy to get caught up in the global warming talk. One of the biggest issues is that of carbon dioxide. People claim that carbon dioxide is the main cause of global warming but carbon dioxide concentrations are not all that high. People have studied that historically there has been much more carbon dioxide in our atmosphere than there is today for example: During the Jurassic Period, 200 million years ago, average ICC concentrations were bout 1 800 pump or about 4. 7 times higher than today. The highest concentrations of ICC during all of the Paleozoic Era occurred during the Cambrian Period, nearly 7000 pump about 18 times higher than today (Global Warming– Introduction). The Carboniferous Period and the Ordination Period were the only geological periods during the Paleozoic Era when global temperatures were as low as they are today (Global Warming, Introduction). To the concern of global warming proponents, the Late Ordination Period was also an Ice Age while at the same time ICC concentrations then were nearly 12 times higher than today– 4400 pump. We will write a custom essay sample on Global Warming Is Not Caused by Humans specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Global Warming Is Not Caused by Humans specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Global Warming Is Not Caused by Humans specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer According to greenhouse theory, Earth should have been exceedingly hot. Instead, global temperatures were no warmer than today. With these facts there has to be other factors besides atmospheric carbon influencing earth’s temperatures and global warming. Plus Carbon dioxide is such a small component of Earth’s atmosphere that it is only about 0. 04% of all gases in the atmosphere. In the last 600 million years of Earth’s history only the Carboniferous Period and our present age, the Quaternary Period, have witnessed ICC levels less than 400 pump (Global Warming- Introduction). Scientists fight back saying that the increase in fossil fuels burning are causing the increase in temperature. Humans use of fossil fuels is just a small portion of the carbon dioxide that makes up our atmosphere. Carbon Dioxide from all coal burning worldwide comprises only 0. 013% Of the greenhouse gases in Earth’s atmosphere (Global Warming- Introduction). This is a very small portion of the Carbon Dioxide that humans contribute to the atmosphere, but what is the percentage of Carbon dioxide contributed by humans to the atmosphere? According to Greatcoat. Com carbon dioxide by human activity is just a minuscule . 17% of the entire atmosphere. There are far too many facts stating that carbon dioxide makes up just a little portion of the atmosphere. With humans only contributing only . 117% carbon dioxide in the entire atmosphere, humans cannot possibly be the cause of global warming. Solar Cycles show proof that humans are not the cause of global warming. Scientists have been observing warming on other planets not just earth. Planetary warming was observed on Mars, Jupiter, Pluto, and Neptune largest moon Triton during decades following the peak of the Solar â€Å"Grand Maximum† (Solar Climate). These same observations are being made on Earth. Having this information how can scientists say that humans are causing global warming when other planets are experiencing the same warming, and humans are not there? According to Nick Frozen on launderers. Mom Pluto is moving further from the sun in its orbit, thus it should be cooling, but instead it is warming. This is one sign that shows that the climate change on Earth is caused by solar cycles. According to Frozen the sun is now changing from its solar Grand Maximum to its solar Grand Minimum. The Earth Heats up after every Grand Maximum lagging a bit after he peak (SolarClimate). Latest science reveals sharp increases in global warming precede sharp increases in carbon dioxide, not the other way around. Global warming causes more carbon dioxide to be released from the oceans (SolarClimate). Current research shows Earth’s oceans are now beginning to cool Frozen says it is also now clear that temperatures over the last century correlate far better with cycles in oceans than they do with carbon dioxide; and the temperature cycles in the oceans are caused by cycles of the sun In 2005 data from Anna’s Mars Global Surveyor and Odyssey Missions valued Global Surveyor and Odyssey missions revealed that the carbon dioxide â€Å"ice Caps† near Mar’s South pole had been diminishing for three summers in a row (National Geographic). Habitual Bodhisattva head of space research at SST. Petersburg Pullout Astronomical Observatory in Russia, says the Mars data is evidence that the current global warming on Earth is being caused by changes in the su n. â€Å"The long-term increase in solar radiance is heating both Earth and Mars,† he said (National Geographic). Bodhisattva believes that changes in the sun’s heat output can account for almost all the climate changes scientists have seen on both planets. Mars and Earth for instance, have experienced periodic ice ages throughout their histories (National Geographic). Abductors says that man-made greenhouse warming has made a small contribution to the warming seen on Early in recent years, but it cannot compete with the increase in solar radiance (National Geographic). Abductors research proves that humans are not the cause of global warming. Science Daily shows A study in the July 2002 issue of Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, published by the American Geophysical Union, proposes for the first time that interstellar cosmic rays could be the missing link between the discordant temperatures observed during the last two decades (since recorded satellite records began in 1979). The report, by Fanning You of the State University of New York-Albany, proposes that the rays, tiny charged particles that bombard all planets with varying frequency depending on solar wind intensity, may have height-dependent effects on our planet’s cloudiness (Science Daily). â€Å"A systematic change in global cloud cover will change the atmospheric heating profile,† You said. â€Å"In other words, the cosmic ray-induced global cloud hanged could be the long-sought mechanism connecting solar and climate variability’ (Science Daily). With this discovery scientists are closer to proving that humans are not the caus e of global warming. Global warming is a cycle the earth has been going through for many years. There are natural cycles, over which we have no control, that dictate how warm the planet is (Absences). According to research conducted by professor Don Easternmost from Western Washington University last November, the oceans and global temperatures are correlated. The Oceans have a cycle in which they warm ND cool cyclically (Absences). One of the cycles scientists have named the Pacific Decal Oscillation (POD). In April 2008, scientists at Anna’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory announced that while the La Ina was weakening, the Pacific Decal Oscillation-?a larger-scale, slower-cycling ocean pattern-?had shifted to its cool phase (NASA: POD). The picture to the right shows both the La Nina anomaly and the POD anomaly on a thermal map. For much of the asses and 1 sass it was a positive cycle which means warmer than average. Observations have revealed that global temperatures were warm too Absences). Scientists say that the oceans control a big part of the temperature and climate of every place in the world.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

The Life and Works of David Ricardo - a Biography

The Life and Works of David Ricardo - a Biography David Ricardo - His Life David Ricardo was born in 1772. He was the third of seventeen children. His family was descended from Iberian Jews who had fled to Holland in the early18th Century. Ricardo’s father, a stockbroker, emigrated to England shortly before David was born. Ricardo began working full-time for his father at the London Stock Exchange when he was fourteen. When he was 21 his family disinherited him when he married a Quaker. Luckily he already had an excellent reputation in finance and he set up his own business as a dealer in government securities. He quickly became very rich. David Ricardo retired from business in 1814 and was elected to the British parliament in 1819 as an independent representing a borough in Ireland, which he served up to his death in 1823. In parliament, his main interests were in the currency and commercial questions of the day. When he died, his estate was worth over $100 million in todays dollars. David Ricardo - His Work Ricardo read Adam Smiths Wealth of Nations (1776) when he was in his late twenties. This sparked an interest in economics that lasted his whole life. In 1809 Ricardo began to write down his own ideas in economics for newspaper articles. In his Essay on the Influence of a Low Price of Corn on the Profits of Stock (1815), Ricardo articulated what came to be known as the law of diminishing returns. (This principle was also discovered simultaneously and independently by Malthus, Robert Torrens, and Edward West). In 1817 David Ricardo published Principles of Political Economy and Taxation. In this text, Ricardo integrated a theory of value into his theory of distribution. David Ricardo’s attempts to answer important economic issues took economics to an unprecedented degree of theoretical sophistication. He outlined the Classical system more clearly and consistently than anyone before had done. His ideas became known as the Classical or Ricardian School. While his ideas were followed they slowly were replaced. However, even today the Neo-Ricardian research program exists.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Lobbing group Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Lobbing group - Essay Example Freedom House central mission is to ensure the government is accountable to their people, the right rule of law is upheld, there is freedom of speech and expression for all, association and ensure there is respect for freedom and rights of the minority. Freedom House mainly concentrates on laws regarding human rights the civil society and in regards to communication and information. It focuses on rules that facilitate free and unbiased flow of information and ideas through the media or the Internet. Freedom House targets mainly the legislators who pass and amend the laws regarding freedom of speech, free Internet and freedom of the media and the security agencies that are against freedom of communication and the Internet. Freedom House is a board of trustees who are comprised of mainly labor leaders, business leaders, former senior government officials, scholars, journalists and writers. The board members and the organization do not identify itself with either the Democratic or the Republican parties in the USA. The members who join have to have one voice and agree that promotion and making the government accountable for human rights and democracy is crucial to American citizens interests locally, internationally and towards achieving international peace. Policy agenda of Freedom House especially the freedom of expression and that of global Internet freedom has support from individuals and large corporations. Supporters especially the staff members and board members who dedicate their time and money towards Freedom House are mainly political enthusiasts who want a liberal society where the government is accountable. Achieving such interests for themselves and the community they live in will ensure a better life in general for the country and the world as a whole. Some members of the organization are businessmen who make donations to the Freedom House

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Central Banks & other International banks Assignment

Central Banks & other International banks - Assignment Example In some cases, the central government may place restrictions con how to hold and use foreign exchange or how to dispose local currency. 2. What did the central banks do to stabilize the financial systems in 2007–2009? In order to stop the financial crisis, central banks across the world followed plans that were almost parallel inaction. The eurozone, US and Britain central banks cut interest rates almost to zero, injected capital in the markets (through massive stimulus programs) and guaranteed bank lending (Allen, 2008). These actions were taken in a bid to restore investor confidence and liquidity. In some nations, the central governments have endeavored to coordinate debt issuance with an aim of avoiding the destabilization of their financial markets. 3. In an effort to stabilize the financial system how much money, in U.S. dollar equivalent and as a percentage of the country's GDP, did the European Central Bank, Bank of England, Bank of China, and the Federal Reserve put i nto the economy in 2008 and 2009? The Central banks responses to the financial crisis were quick and dramatic. The US pumped close to one trillion USD in total in 2008 and 2009 in two massive stimulus packages. In the final quarter of 2008, the European Central Bank and the US Federal Reserve purchased about 2.5 trillion USD worth of government debt and private assets from banks (Spiegel, 2008). Today, the US has spent about 11 trillion USD to the financial crisis about 9.8 trillion USD going to troubled US corporate entities including JPMorgan Chase and General Motors. About 1.2 trillion USD has been set for use in the countries stimulus programs. Of the 9.8 trillion USD, about 6.4 trillion USD is set to be used in Federal Reserve Rescue Efforts. The Bank of China in 2008pledged to release 586 billion USD in the domestic market to stimulate the country’s economy (Morrison, 2009). 4. How well did each country's efforts work at stabilizing the economy? The central banks of mos t countries have worked in coordination with their counterparts elsewhere cutting short term interest rates. Even the People's Bank of China joined the major economies in cutting interest rates. The central bank interventions worked positively for all the countries in mitigating the effects of the financial crisis. In fact, the effects of the crisis have continued to dwindle over time. 5. What appears to be the major constraint that the central banks used to determine the limits of the monetary injections into the economy? The US assumed a most proactive role in tackling the financial crisis. The Federal Reserve has mainly applied interest rate changes to stop the financial crisis from having greater effects on the economy – more than any other central bank. The bank’s interest rate has been reduced from about 5.3% in September, 2007 to about 1.4% over the last couple of months (Senanayake, 2009). 6. Did the United States use the same or different criteria? Through thi s action, the bank has managed to shelve away worries related to high inflation rates. The US applied interest rate reduction, stimulus packages and a relaxed monetary policy like the other central banks albeit more proactively. By lowering interest rates, the supply of money in the market got to increase thereby reducing inflation and panic in the market. 7. To what extent to do you agree/disagree with the actions of

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Human nature Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Human nature - Essay Example The researcher has established the premise that human nature serves as the amalgamation of the features of goodness and evil, which overcome each other on the foundation of various resistible and irresistible circumstances, and hence lead to the development of human nature. The term human nature simply refers to the features and characteristics attributed to human perception, thought, feelings, emotions and sentiments; all of which are reflected in the actions, reactions and behavior of the individuals while entering into interaction with their social, natural and physical environment at large. Such patterns of behavior not only influence their individual life, but also leaves indelible imprints on the collective life of the members of society and culture one belongs to. Consequently, the social norms and cultural values mirror the traits and characteristics observed by human nature. Psychologists, theorists and researchers have always been interested in exploring the human nature and the foundations on which it appears to be erecting (Liebert & Spiegler 6). Some of them view human nature to be the mixture of the qualities man inherits from both of the parents, on which the individual does not maintain any control altogether; on the other hand, some of the theorists strongly declare the physical surroundings and social environment to be responsible for all the activities man is involved into. Hence, proper education and adequate training can introduce imperative alterations in human personality, where a deviant could be taught the manners of leading a law-abiding and sophisticated life. Consequently, nature-nurture debate has always been the moot point for the scholars, philosophers, intellectuals and religious leaders for centuries. While discussing Islamic perception with regards to human nature, it becomes evident that Islam lays stress upon both nature and nurture,

Friday, November 15, 2019

Literature Review Of Flooding And Flood Risks Environmental Sciences Essay

Literature Review Of Flooding And Flood Risks Environmental Sciences Essay The concept of flooding has a multi-disciplinary definition based on the interest of the defining discipline. However, flood is generally taken to include any case where land not normally covered by water becomes covered by water (FWMA, 2010: Pt 1). In recent decades there have been raging scientific and media debates on likely changes in flood regimes generated by land-use changes and climate change (Ranzi et al, 2002). The crux of most of these debates is centred on the simulated risk from such flood events. These risks are related to human health, infrastructure, socio-economic well-being of affected individuals and damage also to archaeological relics. Methods of evaluating and assessing flood risk have been developed in the field of insurance, technological and environmental fields (Molak, 1997; Jones, 2001). Although river flooding is often related to natural disasters, the impacts of human activities such as urbanization have been observed by many scholars (Sala and Inbar, 199 2; Kang et al, 1998; Ranzi et al, 2002). Flood risk is expressed in terms of the probability of occurrence of adverse effects of flood related hazards and vulnerability with potential consequences (Mileti, 1999; Merz, et al, 2007; FWMA, 2010). Although a number of approaches have been tested for flood events prediction, hydraulic models have been specifically designed to predict flood inundation (Horritt and Bates, 2002). Consequently, in the development of an effective and efficient flood risk management strategy hydraulic, hydrologic and socio-economic factors must be taken into consideration (Merz et al, 2007). 2.2 Urbanisation and Flooding Urbanization and flooding are intricately linked in both developed and developing countries. Increasing population growth and continued urban expansion has led to a reduction in surface permeability which invariably increases surface runoff in the absence of alleviating urban drainage design (Kang et al, 1998; Parker, 1999; Ranzi et al, 2002). Although the UK has only small rivers by world standards, with the tendency for smaller-scale floods to occur (Wheater, 2006), considerable economic and infrastructural losses arise from urban flooding (Mark et al, 2004). This loss is significantly higher in smaller river bank communities. For instance, Wheater (2006) notes that the 24hr rainfall in Carlisle on the 8th and 9th of January 2005 resulted in the loss of two lives, an estimated damage of  £450 million and flooding of over 2000 properties when the flood defences were over-topped. The engineering and design of flood defences are based on hydrological and hydraulic models of river ca tchments. Hydrological models simulate surface runoff from rainfall while the hydraulic model describes structural controls of the river system (Kite, 2001; Mark et al, 2004; Kidson et al, 2006; Heatlie et al, 2007). We conclude that urbanization can represent a very significant increase in flood risk at small catchment scale, but that the effects are commonly mitigated, to a greater or lesser extent, by design measures. The impacts of effects at larger scales are complex and depend on the relative magnitude and timing of sub-catchment responses and the performance of mitigation strategies. Relative effects of urbanization on flooding are expected to decrease with increasing storm return period, but the performance of mitigation strategies for events rarer than the design criteria adopted is largely unexplored. 2.3 Global warming and Flooding Though it is still difficult to attribute global warming recorded this century to the enhanced greenhouse effect and the resultant increase in observed rainfall (Reynard et al, 2001; Robson et al, 1998), the recurrent incidence of floods and their magnitude in the UK in recent times have raised major concerns that the effect of climate change is already being felt across the country (Robson, 2002). Milly et al, (2002) produced the theory Global Climate Models have been used to determine the likelihood of increased flood risk from global warming. Reynard et al (2001) used the CLASSIC (Climate and LAnd use Scenario Simulation In Catchments model) continuous flow simulation model to assess the potential impact of climate and changes in land use on the flood regimes of the Severn and Thames rivers. They found that for the 2050s, the climate change scenarios results in an increase in both the frequency and magnitude of flooding events in both rivers. Similarly, Milly et al (2002) observed that the frequency of great floods increased significantly during the twentieth century. Accordingly, the statistically significant positive trend in the risk of floods was consistent with the results from the climate model (Milly et al, 2002). Roy et al (2001) investigated the impact of climate change on summer and autumn flooding on the Chateauguay river basin. Their study reveals serious potential increases in the volume of runoff, maximum discharge and water level with future climate change scenarios for a three 20-year periods spanning 1975 1995, 2020 2040, 2080 2100. 2.4 Modelling of Flood events The simulation of extraordinary flow events characterized by high hydraulic risk has posed serious problems for policy makers, engineers and environmentalists around the world. The use of 1-D modelling for predicting flood risk generated by events of different return period or multiple land use and climate change scenarios is widespread (Lin et al., 2005; Mark et al., 2004; Horritt and Bates, 2002; Mark et al., 2004; Lin et al., 2005; Hall et al, 2005). In their study, Bates and De Roo (2000) demonstrated the use of a 1-D model type storage cell called LISFLOOD-FP to produce designated channel cells for channel routing and uniform flow formulae for floodplain routing, through the process of discrete raster-based analysis derived from a DEM at 100, 50 and 25m resolutions respectively and applied to a major flood on a 35km reach of River Meuse. Syme (2001) notes that in addition to rapid wetting and drying, the strength of TUFLOW is its powerful 1D linking options, modelling of hydraul ic structures, treatment of levees and embankments, effective data handling and quality control outputs. Horritt and Bates (2002) conclude that HEC-RAS models calibrated against discharge gave good flood predictions of inundated area on a 60  km reach of the river Severn, UK. Reed and Robson, (1999, cited in Dawson et al., 2006) stressed that many flood estimation problems were likely to arise at ungauged sites due to the unavailability of flood peak data recorded in the UK Flood Estimation Handbook (FEH). The FEH is produced by the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology with information about River catchments in the UK such as, rainfall frequency estimation, statistical procedures for flood frequency estimation, rainfall-runoff and catchment descriptors. Dawson et al., (2006) used the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) technique to estimate flood statistics for un-gauged catchments (for most of the River catchments in the UK). The index flood analysis from the ANN results produced a comparable accuracy to that obtained from the Flood Estimation Handbook (FEH), but the flood estimation for each catchment was carried out for only a 10, 20 and 30 year flood event period giving room for short term flood defence preparation thereby incurring future expense on what ca n be predicted for up to 1000 years. A study by Yang et al (2002) on prediction of flood inundation and risk, using GIS and Hydrodynamic model showed the ability to use a DEM manipulated in GIS and translated into MIKE21 (a modelling environment). In the study, different scenarios were evaluated and results translated to the GIS environment for visualization and analysis on flood events for an estimated 100-year flood return period. However, Yang et al, stressed that there were no real means to calibrate the simulations from the modelling output, as flow and stage data were rarely recorded for flood events and also, compare between outputs from MIKE21 and MIKE1, the former, being an upgrade of the latter. 2.5 One-Dimension ISIS flood Modelling The ISIS model has been used extensively in modelling inundated flow regimes of rivers across the UK (Heatlie, et al. 2007). The Manchester Ship Canal, a 58 km long river located in North West England and constructed in 1894 to include the navigable part of River Irwell (including River Irwell at Radcliffe, Bury) was one of the last major watercourses in the United Kingdom to be analysed with hydraulic modelling techniques (Heatlie, et al. 2007). In preparation of an indicative flood mapping (IFM), the EA used an unsteady ISIS 1-D hydraulic model for the mapping of a 47km length of the Upstream Bristol Forme catchment to define areas at flood risk in 2002 (Syme et al, 2004). According to past studies (Costa-Cabral and Burges, 1994; Bodis, 2007; Rees, 2000) it is evident that the use of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) in flood model creation have played a big role in the successful presentation of hydrological and topographical drainage basin data analysis (Peckham, 1998) because it depicts an array of elevations across the basin at regularly spaced intervals (Cunha, 2009). This eliminates the assumption that the catchment or area is a flat surface without contours. In research carried out by Sansena Bhaktikul (2006) on the integration of hydraulic modelling and GIS towards the study of river the Mae Klong (Bangkok, Thailand). The runoff frequency analysis was used in the creation of a flood risk map. The study also showed that the results from the simulation carried out, was properly presented in GIS and DTM format, by making use of the contour and river spot height data. Sansena Bhaktikul (2006) conclude their study by suggesting that further studies be done on larger basins by dividing them into sub-basins and the network link to integrate them should be introduced to have an overview of the basin. The runoff flow in flood plains, river channels and man-made structures are important factors in the study of runoff flow behaviour prediction of flood areas, they added, and thus further studies are therefore recommended to include rainfall runoff models in upstream and unsteady areas. 2.6 Aim To develop an appropriate one-dimensional ISIS hydraulic model of flood events that includes upstream catchments of the River Irwell and produce a flood map to predict flood extents an extreme flood event period. 2.7 Research Question Does the inclusion of upstream catchments improve the net flood prediction model of the river Irwell? What areas are most vulnerable to flood risk in Radcliffe, Bury? To what level should the flood defences be built around the Radcliffe area?